This repository contains benchmark programs for ScalarDB.

Available workloads

  • TPC-C
  • YCSB (Workload A, C, and F)
  • Multi-storage YCSB (Workload C and F)
    • A YCSB-variant benchmark using a multi-storage environment of ScalarDB.
    • Workers in multi-storage YCSB execute the same number of read/write operations in two namespaces (ycsb_primary and ycsb_secondary).


  • Java (OpenJDK 8 or higher)
  • Gradle
  • Kelpie

The benchmark uses Kelpie, which is a simple yet general framework for performing end-to-end testing such as system benchmarking and verification. Get the latest version of Kelpie from here and unzip the archive.


Set up an environment

This benchmark requires the followings:

  • A client to execute this benchmark
  • A target database (See here for supported databases)


./gradlew shadowJar

Create tables

Before loading initial data, the tables must be defined using ScalarDB Schema Loader. Get the latest schema loader here and execute it with the workload-specific schema file. For setting ScalarDB properties, see also the related documents here.

For example, execute the following command with tpcc-schema.json to create tables for TPC-C benchmark. For YCSB and multi-storage YCSB, use ycsb-schema.json and ycsb-multi-storage-schema.json, respectively.

java -jar scalardb-schema-loader-<version>.jar --config /path/to/ -f tpcc-schema.json --coordinator

Load and run

  1. Prepare a configuration file
    • A configuration file requires at least the locations of workload modules to run and the database configuration. The following example shows the case for running TPC-C benchmark. The database configuration should be matched with the benchmark environment set up above. You can use the ScalarDB property file instead of specifying each configuration item. If the config_file is specified, all other configuration items will be ignored.
      name = "com.scalar.db.benchmarks.tpcc.TpccLoader"
      path = "./build/libs/scalardb-benchmarks-all.jar"
      name = "com.scalar.db.benchmarks.tpcc.TpccBench"
      path = "./build/libs/scalardb-benchmarks-all.jar"
      name = "com.scalar.db.benchmarks.tpcc.TpccReporter"
      path = "./build/libs/scalardb-benchmarks-all.jar"
      contact_points = "localhost"
      contact_port = 9042
      username = "cassandra"
      password = "cassandra"
      storage = "cassandra"
      #config_file = "/path/to/"
    • You can define static parameters to pass to modules in the file. For details, see the sample configuration files below and available parameters in the following section.
      • TPC-C: tpcc-benchmark-config.toml
      • YCSB: ycsb-benchmark-config.toml
      • Multi-storage YCSB: ycsb-multi-storage-benchmark-config.toml
  2. Run a benchmark
    ${kelpie}/bin/kelpie --config your_config.toml
    • ${kelpie} is a Kelpie directory, which is extracted from the archive you downloaded above.
    • There are other options such as --only-pre (i.e., loading data) and --only-process (i.e., running benchmark), which run only the specified process. --except-pre and --except-process run a job without the specified process.

Common parameters

name description default
concurrency Number of threads for benchmarking. 1
run_for_sec Duration of benchmark (in seconds). 60
ramp_for_sec Duration of ramp up time before benchmark (in seconds). 0

Workload-specific parameters


name description default
num_warehouses Number of warehouses (scale factor) for benchmarking. 1
load_concurrency Number of threads for loading. 1
load_start_warehouse Start ID of loading warehouse. This option can be useful with --skip-item-load when loading large scale data with multiple clients or adding additional warehouses. 1
load_end_warehouse End ID of loading warehouse. You can use either --num-warehouses or --end-warehouse to specify the number of loading warehouses. 1
skip_item_load Whether or not to skip loading item table false
use_table_index Whether or not to use a generic table-based secondary index instead of ScalarDB’s secondary index. false
np_only Run benchmark with only new-order and payment transactions (50% each). false
rate_new_order Percentage of new-order transaction. Specify all the rate parameters to use your own mix. N/A
rate_payment Percentage of payment transaction. Specify all the rate parameters to use your own mix. N/A
rate_order_status Percentage of order-status transaction. Specify all the rate parameters to use your own mix. N/A
rate_delivery Percentage of delivery transaction. Specify all the rate parameters to use your own mix. N/A
rate_stock_level Percentage of stock-level transaction. Specify all the rate parameters to use your own mix. N/A
backoff Sleep time in milliseconds inserted after a transaction is aborted due to a conflict. 0

YCSB and multi-storage YCSB

name description default
load_concurrency Number of threads for loading. 1
load_batch_size Number of put records in a single loading transaction. 1
load_overwrite Whether or not to overwrite when loading records. false
ops_per_tx Number of operations in a single transaction. 2 (Workload A and C)
1 (Workload F)
record_count Number of records in the target table. 1000
use_read_modify_write Whether or not to use read-modify-writes instead of blind writes in Workload A. false1

However, you need to set true if you use the consensus commit for the transaction manager because ScalarDB does not allow a blind write for the existing record.

  1. The default value is false for use_read_modify_write since Workload A does not assume the transaction reads the original record first.